Faktor risiko kejadian disfagia pada penderita keganasan kepala dan leher yang menjalani kemoradiasi

Ridha Patria Febriani, Dwi Antono, Rery Budiarti, Muyassaroh Muyassaroh

Abstract


Latar belakang: Disfagia akibat kemoradiasi merupakan efek samping yang banyak ditemui. Angkakejadian disfagia dilaporkan lebih dari 50%. Faktor risiko terjadinya disfagia akibat kemoradiasi belumdiketahui secara pasti.

Tujuan: Membuktikan bahwa usia, stadium, lokasi primer tumor, jenis kemoterapi,dan riwayat merokok merupakan faktor risiko terjadinya disfagia pada penderita keganasan kepala danleher (KKL) yang menjalani kemoradiasi.

Metode: Penelitian observasional analitik dengan desain potonglintang. Subjek adalah penderita KKL yang menjalani kemoradiasi. Penentuan status disfagia denganpemeriksaan 100 ml WST (Water Swallowing Time). Usia, stadium, lokasi primer tumor, jenis kemoterapi,dan riwayat merokok diperoleh dari anamnesis dan rekam medis. Analisis statistik menggunakan uji chisquare dan regresi logistik.

Hasil: Didapatkan 75 subjek penderita KKL yang menjalani kemoradiasi.Empat puluh delapan (64%) subjek mengalami disfagia dan 27 subjek memiliki fungsi menelan yangnormal. Jenis kelamin lebih banyak laki-laki sebesar 61,3%. Stadium tumor (p=0,047) dan riwayat merokok(p=0,010) merupakan faktor risiko kejadian disfagia pada penderita KKL yang menjalani kemoradiasi.Usia (p=0,718), lokasi tumor (p=0,770), dan jenis kemoterapi (p=0,736) bukan merupakan faktor risikokejadian disfagia pada penderita KKL yang menjalani kemoradiasi.

Kesimpulan: Usia, lokasi primertumor, dan jenis kemoterapi bukan merupakan faktor risiko kejadian disfagia pada penderita KKL yangmenjalani kemoradiasi. Stadium dan riwayat merokok merupakan faktor risiko kejadian disfagia padapenderita KKL yang menjalani kemoradiasi. Riwayat merokok merupakan faktor yang paling berperanterhadap kejadian disfagia pada penderita KKL yang menjalani kemoradiasi.

 

Kata kunci: Kemoradiasi, disfagia, faktor risiko, keganasan kepala dan leher

 

ABSTRACT

Background: Dysphagia following chemoradiotherapy is an adverse effect often encountered, theincidence was reported over than 50%. The risk factors for dysphagia following chemoradiotherapy are stilldisputable.

Objective: To investigate whether age, stage, primary tumor location, type of chemotherapy,and smoking history were risk factors for dysphagia in patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy forhead and neck malignancy.

Methods: This was an observational analytic study with cross sectionaldesign. The subjects were patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy for head and neck malignancies.Each subject performed 100 ml WST examination, to determine the status of dysphagia. Parametersof age, stage, primary tumor location, type of chemotherapy, and smoking history were obtained frommedical records. Statistical tests performed using the Chi square test and logistic regression.

Results:The incidence of dysphagia following chemoradiotherapy were 48 subjects (64%) and 27 subjects hadnormal swallowing function. Tumor stage (p= 0,047) and smoking history (p=0,01) were the risk factorsfor dysphagia following chemoradiotherapy, while age (p=0,718), the location of the primary tumor (p=0,770) and the type of chemotherapy (p=0,736) were not found as the risk factors for dysphagia followingchemoradiotherapy.

Conclusion: Age, primary tumor location, and type of chemotherapy were not riskfactors for dysphagia following chemoradiotherapy, but the stage of tumor and smoking history wererisk factors for dysphagia following chemoradiotherapy. The most influencing factor on the incidenceof dysphagia was smoking history.

 

Keywords: Chemoradiation, dysphagia, risk factor, head and neck malignancy

 

Alamat korespondensi: Rery Budiarti, email: rerybudiarti@yahoo.comDepartemen IKTHT-KL FK Undip/RSUP Dr. Kariadi Jl. Dr. Sutomo 16 Semarang, 50231.


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.32637/orli.v46i1.148

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