Efektivitas terapi komplementer propolis telaah terhadap SGHT dan IL-33 sekret hidung penderita rinitis alergi

Yunis Sucipta Ibnu, Dwi Reno Pawarti, Mansyur Siddiq Wiyadi

Abstract


Latar belakang: Rinitis alergi (RA) adalah inflamasi mukosa hidung yang diperantarai oleh IgE. Gejala dapat dinilai dengan Skor Gejala Hidung Total (SGHT). Patofisiologi dan manifestasi klinis RA dipengaruhi oleh berbagai sitokin diantaranya interleukin 33 (IL-33). Efektivitas propolis maupun flavonoid dalam menurunkan SGHT dan kadar IL-33 sekret hidung masih kontroversi. Tujuan: Membuktikan bahwa penambahan propolis pada terapi komplementer RA lebih efektif menurunkan SGHT dan kadar IL-33 sekret hidung. Metode: Penelitian double blind randomized clinical trial (RCT), dilakukan di Unit Rawat Jalan (URJ) Divisi Alergi Imunologi, Departemen Telinga Hidung Tenggorok-Bedah Kepala Leher (THT-KL) RSUD Dr. Soetomo, dan Institute of Tropical Disease, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya pada bulan September 2018-Januari 2019. Pasien RA yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi diperiksa SGHT dan kadar IL-33 sekret hidung. Terapi diberikan selama 14 hari, evaluasi SGHT dan kadar IL-33 dilakukan hari ke-15. Hasil: Sepuluh sampel mendapat propolis dan terapi standar (kelompok A), sepuluh sampel mendapat terapi standar (kelompok B). Perbandingan SGHT antar kelompok setelah terapi rerata kelompok A=1,6 (SD 1,7), kelompok B=5,2 (SD 1,6). Uji Mann-Whitney satu arah p=0,001 menunjukkan SGHT antar kelompok setelah terapi berbeda signifikan (p<0,005). Rerata kadar IL-33 setelah terapi kelompok A=0,051 (SD 0,005), kelompok B=0,051 (SD 0,013). Uji t nilai p=0,881 menunjukkan kadar IL-33 sekret hidung antar kelompok setelah terapi berbeda tidak signifikan (p>0,005). Kesimpulan: Penambahan propolis sebagai terapi komplementer lebih efektif dalam menurunkan SGHT dibandingkan dengan terapi standar saja, namun tidak efektif dalam menurunkan kadar IL-33 sekret hidung penderita RA.

 

Background: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a nasal mucosa inflammation mediated by IgE. The symptoms severity is determined by total nasal symptom score (TNSS). The pathophysiology and clinical manifestations of AR are affected by several cytokines, one of which is interleukin 33 (IL-33). Efficacy of propolis or flavonoid in reducing TNSS and IL-33 level in nasal secretion is still a controversy. Purpose: To find out whether propolis addition to standard therapy could be more effective in reducing TNSS and IL-33 level of nasal secretion. Method: Double blind randomized clinical trial (RCT). The study was conducted at Outpatient unit of Department of Allergic and Immunology, Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya and Institute of Tropical Disease (ITD) Universitas Airlangga. Allergic rhinitis patients who met inclusion criteria were examined for TNSS and IL-33 nasal secretion level. Therapy was given for 14 days, after which TNSS and IL-33 levels were evaluated on day 15th. Ten samples received propolis and standard therapy (group A), ten samples received standard therapy only (group B). Result: The comparison of TNSS groups after treatment: mean group A=1.6 (SD 1.7), and mean group B=5.2 (SD 1.6). One way Mann-Whitney test showed p=0.001 indicating the TNSS after treatment was significantly different (p<0.005). The comparison of IL-33: mean group A=0.051(SD=0.005) and mean group B=0.051(SD=0.013), t-test p=0.0881 indicating the IL-33 level of nasal secretion after treatment was not significantly different (p>0.005). Conclusion: Propolis as a complementary therapy was more effective reducing TNSS compared to standard therapy only, but it was not effective in reducing IL-33 level of nasal secretion.


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.32637/orli.v49i1.286

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