Peran blok servikal superfisialis pada timpanomastoidektomi dalam anestesia umum

Pryambodho Pryambodho, Ruth Evlin Margaretha, Aida Rosita Tantri, Harim Priyono

Abstract


Pendahuluan: Blok perifer yang digunakan saat pasien teranestesi akan mengurangi kebutuhan anestesia dan analgesia selama pembedahan. Berkurangnya pemakaian opioid intraoperatif juga akan mengurangi morbiditas pascaoperatif yang berkaitan dengan opioid. Tujuan: Penelitian dilakukan untuk mengetahui peran Blok Pleksus Servikal Superfisialis (BPSS) dalam mengurangi konsumsi fentanil intraoperatif, menstabilkan hemodinamik intraoperatif, dan mempercepat waktu pulih pada timpanomastoidektomi dalam anestesia umum. Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan uji klinis acak tersamar tunggal yang dilakukan di RSCM selama bulan September-November 2013 pada 32 pasien usia 19-65 tahun, ASA I-III dengan berat badan 35-80 kg yang dibagi menjadi dua kelompok. Hasil: Pada kelompok BPSS, dilakukan BPSS sebelum induksi menggunakan bupivakain 0,5%, sedangkan pada kelompok kontrol tidak dilakukan. Anestesia dipertahankan dengan FGF 0,8-1,6 lpm, compress air: O2 (konsentrasi 40%); isofluran ±1 MAC dan atrakurium 0,25 mg/kgBB setiap 30 menit untuk menjaga nilai BIS 45-60. Fentanil diberikan setiap ada peningkatan tekanan darah sistolik atau frekuensi nadi ≥20% dari nilai 5 menit sebelumnya. Saat 30 menit sebelum operasi selesai diberikan parasetamol 1 gram iv dan ondansetron 4 mg iv. Rerata konsumsi fentanil intraoperatif, tekanan darah sistolik, dan frekuensi nadi kelompok BPSS lebih rendah dan bermakna secara statistik dibandingkan kelompok kontrol: 150 mcg vs 262,5 mcg, p<0,001; 104 (90-112) vs 120 (110-130), p<0,001 dan 68 (62-86) vs 80 (68-100), p<0,001. Kesimpulan: Pemberian blok pleksus servikal superfisialis sebelum induksi mengurangi konsumsi fentanil intraoperatif, menekan respon hemodinamik terhadap insisi kulit, dan mempercepat waktu pulih pada timpanomastoidektomi dalam anestesia umum.
Kata kunci: anestesia umum, blok pleksus servikal superfisialis, kecepatan waktu pulih, konsumsi fentanil, timpanomastoidektomi

ABSTRACT
Background: The peripheral block combined with general anesthesia reduces intraoperative anesthesia and analgesia requirement. Reduced opioid consumption decreases postoperative morbidity related to opioid. Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the role of superficial cervical plexus block (SCPB) before induction in reducing fentanyl consumption, stabilizing intraoperative hemodynamic, and speeding up recovery time in tympanomastoidectomy.  Methods: This single blind randomized clinical trial was conducted in RSCM from September to November 2013 on 32 ASA I-III patients, 13-65 years old, with body weight range 35-85 kg which were randomized into 2 groups. Result: SCPB was performed in SCPB group before induction using bupivacaine 0.5%, whereas in the control group was not performed. Anesthesia was maintained with FGF 0,8-1,6 lpm, compress air: O2 with O2 consentration 40%, isoflurane ± 1 MAC, and atracurium 0,5 mg/kgBW every 30 minutes to keep BIS level 45-60. Fentanyl was given when there was an increase in systolic blood pressure or pulse rate ≥20% more than the value of 5 minutes previously. Paracetamol 1 g iv and ondansetron 4 mg iv were given 30 minutes before the end of the surgery. The average intraoperative fentanyl consumption, systolic blood pressure, and pulse rate was lower and statistically significant in BPSS group compared to the control group: 150 mcg vs 262,5 mcg, p<0,001; 104 (90-112) vs 120 (110-130), p<0,001 and 68 (62-86) vs 80 (68-100), p<0,001
Conclusion: Administration of SCBP before induction, reduced the intraoperative fentanyl consumption, suppressed hemodynamic responses to skin incision and speed up recovery time on tympanomastoidectomy in general anesthesia.
Keywords: general anesthesia, superficial cervical plexus block, recovery time, fentanyl consumption,tympanomastoidectomy


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.32637/orli.v45i1.100

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